HASSAN II UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF LETTERS
AND HUMAN SCIENCES
Modular Program: English Studies
Pr. S. FATHI
Grammar 1: Course Content
1. Present Simple & Continuous
2. Past Simple & Continuous
3. Present Perfect Simple & Continuous
4. Past Perfect Simple & Continuous
5. Future (Perfect) Simple & Continuous
6. (Mixed) Conditionals
Chapter 1: THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
- This Chapter is about the different uses of Present S & C.
Form: present tense of BE + present participle (infinitive + ing)
1- Action happening at the moment of speaking
- Look, it is raining.
- I am wearing a sweater because it is cold.
- Why are you looking at him?
- She is not writing as she doesn’t have a pen.
2- Temporary action in progress these days
- I am reading a story by Hemingway.
- They are painting all the walls.
- I am living with my uncle because i am painting my room.
- I am taking a medicine.
- We are looking for a new flat.
- She is taking driving courses.
3- Pre-arranged future action
- I am meeting a friend tonight; we are going to the movies.
- Are you doing anything this weekend?
- Yes, we are going camping.
- I am seeing my dentist next Wednesday.
4- Used with “always” to express irritation at a repeated action
- The boys are always playing football in the street.
- They are always sitting in the café.
- She is always talking on the phone.
- He is always playing the guitar at nights.
Exceptions: since the present continuous is used normally only for, intentional actions, the following verbs are not used in continuous tenses. Stative verbs are verbs that talk about the state of the subject, unlike dynamic verbs that talk about deliberate actions.
- Verbs of the senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe
but: listen, look, smell, see, and feel
- Verbs of feeling and emotions: adore, appreciate, care, desire, detest, fear, hate, like, love, mind, value, want, and wish
- Verbs of mental activity: agree, appreciate, believe, expect, forget, know, mean, perceive, realize, recall, recognize, remember, think, trust, and understand
- Verbs of possession: belong, owe, possess, own, and have but: have (eat, take) 5- Miscellaneous: appear concern, consist, hold, keep, matter, seem, and signify
THE PRESENT SIMPLE
Form: infinitive without “to”; bare infinitive
ànegative form: contraction of “DO”
1- To express facts, general truths
- Water boils at 100 °C.
- The River Danube flows through Vienna.
- Dogs bark and cats mew.
- The sun rises in the East.
2- To express habitual actions
- I usually get up at 7 a.m.
- She studies music every Saturday.
- He often goes jogging on the weekend.
- We sometimes play soccer on Sunday mornings.
3- Future actions according to a schedule, program, timetable
- Next Wednesday is a national holiday.
- The football season starts in September.
- Classes end by late June.
- The show starts at 9 p.m.
4. We sometimes use the present simple to talk about the past when we are:
- telling a story:
I was walking down the street the other day when suddenly this man comes up to me and tells me he has lost his wallet and asks me to lend him some money. Well, he looks a bit dangerous so I‘m not sure what to do and while we are standing there …
- summarising a book, film or play:
Harry Potter goes to Hogwarts School. He has two close friends, Hermione and …Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the Prince of Denmark. One night he sees his father’s ghost. The ghost tells him he has been murdered