Faculty of Letters & Human Sciences
Department of English
Prof. Msaddek Mohammed
Section 1: Sentence Structure
Sentences are a group of words used for expressing ideas, views and conceptualizations. A sentence contains at least one subject (a noun or a phrase) and a verb. It expresses a complete idea. The verb expresses the action of the sentence, and the subject tells who or what completed the action.
II- Typologies of sentences:
a-Simple Sentence: (Subject + Predicate)
The earth moves round the sun
Young people and adults enjoyed watching movies. Students completed and turned in their homework.
The films entertained and thrilled audiences everywhere.
b- Compound Sentence:
Two complete sentences joined by a comma + coordinate conjunction (and, or, nor, but, for, so, yet)
He participated in the national games, and she fought the general election. He worked hard, but he failed the examination.
He studied English, for he wanted to travel around the world.
c- Complex Sentences:
One complete sentence (also known as an independent or main clause + one subordinate (or dependent) clause.
After he finished his academic studies, he applied for the job.
- Independent clause: He applied for the job
- Dependent clause: After he finished his academic studies. (This sentence cannot stand on its own)
Although citizens protested the smoking ban, the press failed to cover the story.
- Independent clause: the press failed to cover the story
- Dependent clause: Although citizens protested the smoking ban. (This sentence cannot stand on its own)
If you help me now, I will help you later.
- Independent clause: I will help you later.
Dependent clause: If you help me now (This sentence cannot stand on its own)
- Clause: a group of words that contain a subject and a verb
- Independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought. It is also called a sentence.
- Dependent clause: a clause that does not express a complete thought. Thus, it must be connected to an independent clause.
A coordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links two words, phrases, clauses, or sentences that are grammatically equivalent.
1- For (reason) I went to bed early yesterday, for I was tired. 2- And (addition) My sister and I went shopping last week. 3- Nor ( and not) I will neither drink nor dance.
4- But (contrast) This room is old but comfortable. 5- Or (options) Do you play the piano or the violin?
6- Yet (outcome) He likes to play tennis, yet his favourite sport is football. 7- So (result) I was very tired, so I went to bed early yesterday.
Subordinating Conjunctions are parts of speech that join dependent clauses to independent clauses. They are also referred to as subordinators or subordinate conjunctions.
Examples: After, before, although, as, because, if, in order that, once, provided that, since, rather than, so that, unless, when, until, whenever, whether, while, why, wherever, whereas…….
Conjunctive Adverbs are parts of speech that are used to connect one clause to another. They are also use to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect, etc. They are words that connect two sentences together, making a new sentence.
Examples: Moreover, in addition, additionally, besides, consequently, as a result, finally, subsequently, further, furthermore, however, in contrast, indeed, likewise, hence, in fact, instead, meanwhile, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the other hand; similarly, that is, therefore, otherwise…
Examples of Conjunctive Adverbs in Sentences
- You must do your homework; otherwise, you might get a bad grade.
- I won’t be attending the show; therefore, I have an extra ticket for anyone that can use it.
- You are my friend; nonetheless, I feel like you are taking advantage of me.
- We were supposed to go dancing after dinner; however, we went home instead.
- Amy practiced the piano; meanwhile, her brother practiced the violin.
- Marion needed to be home early; hence, she left work at 3 p.m.